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Hearing Impairment

                                                                                                                                                           

SEN Guidance 2014

Hearing Impairment

How to use this Guidance

Identifying range

 

  1. Read the descriptors below (Overview of Ranges) to identify which range best describes your child. A glossary of terms used when describing hearing loss is at the bottom of this page.
  2. To find out the provision recommended at the range you have identified go to the appropriate full page range description.
  3. It is important to recognise that these ranges can alter either because the pupil’s profile may change or because of context changes such as times of transition/ school placement.

 

 

Using the Guidance to support learning

 

  1. Quality First Teaching will provide a firm basis upon which to use the additional strategies identified at each range. Strategies and advice from earlier ranges need to be utilised as well as more specialised information as the ranges increase.

 

      2. Information on deafness/hearing loss can be found on Bradford Schools Online by following this link:

      3. Further enquiries pertaining to children with permanent hearing loss can be made to the Support               Team for Deaf Children on 01274 385833.

 

Children with a permanent hearing loss are identified by local audiology departments and referred directly to the Support Team for Deaf Children.  When a referral has been made support is offered by specialist staff from the team to children, families and schools/settings. For a pre-school child home visits are made to families and for those in a setting advice is provided to staff.

 

It is acknowledged that other conditions may occur alongside hearing loss for example degrees of learning difficulty, Autism Spectrum Conditions, physical difficulties, visual impairment. Advice on these is not specifically made within this guidance.  Professionals may find other guidance produced in this information set useful in these cases. This may affect the presentation as reflected when using the range descriptors on page 3.

 

Note: Colleagues consulting this guidance for children up to the end of the foundation stage need to use the guidance in conjunction with the document in this set ‘SEN Guidance for the Early Years’   

 

Glossary

 

Types of Deafness

Conductive Hearing Loss: when sound can’t pass efficiently through the outer and middle ear to the cochlea and auditory nerve. The most common type of conductive deafness in children is caused by glue ear – when fluid builds up in the middle ear. For most children this is a temporary condition and clears up by itself. For some children the problem may be a chronic or permanent problem and they may have grommets inserted or be fitted with hearing aids.

Sensori-neural deafness: when there is a fault in the inner ear or auditory nerve. Sensori-neural deafness is permanent.

 

Degrees of Deafness

 

The British Society of Audiology descriptors are used to define degrees of hearing loss. These descriptors are based on the average hearing threshold levels at 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000Hz in the better ear (where no response is taken to have a value of 130 dBHL).

 

Mild hearing loss

Unaided threshold 21-40 dBHL

Moderate hearing loss

Unaided threshold 41-70 dBHL

Severe hearing loss

Unaided threshold 71-95 dBHL

Profound hearing loss

Unaided threshold in excess of 95 dBHL

 

Hearing Impairment Descriptors – Overview of Ranges

 

The children and young people (C&YP) to whom this guidance relates will present with a range of hearing loss which affect their language and communication development. The suggested provision and resourcing at the appropriate range will support effective teaching and learning for this group of C&YP.

 

Guidance for funding will be described in the relevant section

 

Children and young people with Hearing Impairment may have differences in the areas identified below.  Use these descriptors to identify the needs of an individual C&YP Highlight the descriptors which are appropriate to an individual child and compare this to the range models

 

Range 1

 

  • Aided/unaided conductive temporary or
  • Chronic conductive aiding not appropriate or
  • Unilateral/bilateral minimal average <20dBHL or mild – aiding not appropriate

 

Range 2

 

  • Hearing loss:
    • aidable chronic conductive,
    • bilateral aidable minimal or mild
    • moderate permanent unilateral
  • May have hearing aids
  • Moderate difficulty with listening, attention, concentration, speech, language and class participation
  • Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

 

Range 3

 

  • Aided chronic conductive, or bilateral moderate permanent
  • Will have hearing aids and could have radio aid
  • Will have moderate difficulty accessing spoken language, likely language delay
  • May have difficulty with listening, attention, concentration and class participation
  • May have Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

 

Range 4i

 

  • Bilateral moderate or severe permanent hearing loss with no additional learning difficulties
  • Severe difficulty accessing spoken language and therefore the curriculum
  • May have additional language delay associated with hearing loss
  • Will have Hearing aids and may have radio aid
  • Speech clarity likely to be significantly affected
  • Difficulties with attention, concentration, confidence and class participation
  • Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

 

Range 4ii

 

  • Bilateral moderate/severe or severe/profound permanent hearing loss
  • May have additional language/learning difficulties associated with hearing loss
  • Will have hearing aids and radio aid or cochlear implant
  • Profound difficulty accessing spoken language and therefore the curriculum
  • Speech clarity will be profoundly affected
  • Severe difficulties with attention, concentration, confidence and class participation
  • Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

 

Range 5

 

  • Bilateral moderate/severe/profound permanent hearing loss
  • Additional language/learning difficulties associated with hearing loss
  • British Sign Language (BSL) or Signs to Support English (SSE) will be needed for effective communication
  • Will have hearing aids/cochlear implants and a radio aid
  • Profound difficulty accessing spoken language and therefore the curriculum without specialist intervention
  • Speech clarity will be profoundly affected
  • Will have significant difficulties with attention, concentration, confidence and class participation
  • Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder
  • Profound language delay and communication difficulties which prevent the development of appropriate social and emotional health.

 

Range 6

 

  • Bilateral moderate/severe/profound permanent hearing loss
  • Profound language/learning difficulties associated with hearing loss
  • Additional difficulties and learning needs not associated with hearing loss.
  • May have BSL/SSE or augmentative communication needed for effective communication
  • Will have hearing aids/cochlear implants and a radio aid
  • Profound difficulty accessing spoken language and therefore the curriculum
  • Speech clarity will be affected
  • Difficulty with attention, concentration, confidence and class participation
  • Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder
  • Profound language delay and communication difficulties which prevent the development of appropriate social and emotional health

 

Range 1

 

 

Hearing Impairment

Descriptor

 

 

  • Aided/unaided conductive temporary or
  • Chronic conductive aiding not appropriate or
  • Unilateral/bilateral minimal average <20dBHL or mild – aiding not appropriate

 

School will provide

LA will provide

Assessment and Planning

 

 

  • Part of school and class assessments
  • Normal curriculum plans include individual/group targets

 

 

Grouping for Teaching

 

 

 

  • Mainstream class
  • Must have attention to seating, lighting and acoustics

 

 

Human Resources/

Staffing

 

 

  • Main provision by class/subject teacher
  • Agreed joint written Advice from the hospital Audiology Department and Support Team for Deaf Children (STDC) on effects of hearing loss, classroom management. Advice given by hospital audiologist

 

Curriculum & Teaching Methods

 

Full inclusion within National Curriculum

 

Resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

Range 2

 

 

Hearing Impairment

Descriptor

 

 

 

  • Hearing loss:
    • aidable chronic conductive,
    • bilateral aidable minimal or mild
    • moderate permanent unilateral
  • May have hearing aids
  • Moderate difficulty with listening, attention, concentration, speech, language and class participation
  • Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

 

 

School will provide

LA will provide

Assessment and Planning

 

 

 

 

Assessment

  • Part of school and class assessments

Planning

  • Normal curriculum plans will include individual/group targets. :
  • Possible use of speech audiometry and other specialist tools to assess access to spoken language in class on request to STDC
  • Target setting informed as appropriate by advice from the teacher of the deaf

 

 

Grouping for Teaching

 

 

 

  • Mainstream class

 

  • Must  have attention to seating, lighting and acoustics

 

 

Human Resources/

Staffing

 

 

 

  • Main provision by class/subject teacher

 

Teacher of the deaf  (TOD) will complete a single piece of work on referral and will either send written advice or initiate the following:

  • Contact family

Visit school

Observe pupil in class

Speak to pupil

Speech discrimination

Gather data on progress

Advise staff (class teacher / SENCO)

  • Written report circulated to school, family, hospital
  • Annual electroacoustic assessment of hearing aids
  • Additional support if needs change on request from school

 

Curriculum & Teaching Methods

 

 

 

  • Full inclusion within National Curriculum
  • Teaching methods which facilitate access to the curriculum, social/emotional development and class participation

 

  • Written advice to school on an annual basis

 

Resources

 

 

 

Specific deaf related training opportunities for staff on request to STDC

 

 

Range 3

 

 

Hearing Impairment

Descriptor

 

 

 

  • Aided chronic conductive, or bilateral moderate permanent
  • Will have hearing aids and could have radio aid
  • Will have moderate difficulty accessing spoken language, likely language delay
  • May have difficulty with listening, attention, concentration and class participation
  • May have Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

 

 

School will provide

LA will provide

Assessment and Planning

 

 

 

 

Assessment

  • Should be part of school and class assessments
  • May require modification to the presentation of assessments

Planning

  • Curriculum plan must reflect levels of achievement and include individually focused IEP

 

  • Ongoing assessment, advice, support and monitoring
  • All the above incorporating advice from a teacher of the deaf
  • Advice from TOD on the modification to the presentation of assessments
  • Targets informed as appropriate by advice from a teacher of the deaf

 

Grouping for Teaching

 

 

 

  • Mainstream class
  • Must have attention to seating, lighting and acoustics
  • Opportunities for 1:1 and small group work

 

 

Human Resources/

Staffing

 

 

 

  • Main provision by class/subject teacher

 

For a child identified with a hearing loss when they are in a school or setting teacher of the deaf will complete a piece of work on referral:

  • Contact family
  • Visit school:

Observe pupil in class

Speak to pupil

Speech discrimination

Gather data on progress

Advise staff (class teacher / SENCO)

  • Written report circulated to school, family, hospital
  • Annual electroacoustic assessment of hearing aids
  • Monitoring visit to speak to pupil/SENCO
  • Assess and issue radio aid by educational audiologist
  • Monitor radio aid use by specialist audiology practitioner
  • Could have input from non-education professionals e.g. SALT

 

Curriculum & Teaching Methods

 

 

 

  • Full inclusion within National Curriculum
  • Differentiation by presentation and/or outcome
  • Opportunities for explanation, clarification and reinforcement of lesson content and language
  • Specific interventions for speaking, listening and teaching of phonics

 

  • Advice from a TOD on curriculum and teaching methods
  • Written advice to school on an annual basis

 

Resources

 

 

 

  • Electro-acoustic assessment of auditory equipment by educational audiologist
  • Specific deaf related training for staff

 

 

Range 4i

 

 

Hearing Impairment

Descriptor

 

 

 

  • Bilateral moderate or severe permanent hearing loss with no additional learning difficulties
  • Severe difficulty accessing spoken language and therefore the curriculum
  • May have additional language delay associated with hearing loss
  • Will have Hearing aids and may have radio aid
  • Speech clarity likely to be significantly affected
  • Difficulties with attention, concentration, confidence and class participation
  • Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

 

 

School will provide

LA will provide

Assessment and Planning

 

 

 

 

Assessment

  • Part of school and class assessments
  • Must have modifications to the presentation of assessments

Planning

  • Curriculum plan reflects levels of achievement and must include individually focused IEP
  • Must have speech audiometry and other specialist tools to assess access to spoken language in class
  • Targets to incorporate advice from the teacher of the deaf

 

Grouping for Teaching

 

 

 

  • Mainstream class
  • Must have regular opportunities for 1:1 and small group work based on identified need
  • Must have attention to seating, lighting and acoustics
  • Advice from a TOD on curriculum and teaching methods

Human Resources/

Staffing

 

 

 

  • Main provision by class/subject teacher with advice from ToD
  • Clear direction of TA with appropriate training, under the direction of the teacher to
    • reinforce lesson content
    • deliver modified curriculum tasks
    • support language development

 

For a child identified with a hearing loss when they are in a school or setting teacher of the deaf completes a piece of work on referral as detailed in Range 3 above

 

  • Termly electro-acoustic hearing aid checks
  • Monitoring visits to speak to pupil/SENCO
  • Assess, issue and monitor radio aid

6 hours from educational audiologist/specialist practitioner

  • INSET to whole staff re hearing loss, use of radio aid etc
  • Up to 76 hours per year for support to school and associated casework from TOD/Specialist Practitioner
  • Advice from other non-educational professionals inc. SALT as appropriate

 

Curriculum & Teaching Methods

 

 

 

  • Full inclusion within National Curriculum
  • Differentiation by presentation and/or outcome
  • Regular opportunities for explanation, clarification and reinforcement of lesson content and language
  • Specific interventions for speaking, listening and teaching of phonics
  • Advice from a TOD on curriculum and teaching methods

Resources

 

 

Access to a quiet room for small group and 1:1 sessions

  • Electro-acoustic assessment of auditory equipment by educational audiologist
  • Provision of personal FM systems and soundfield systems
  • Specific deaf-related training for staff

 

 

 

Range 4ii

 

 

Hearing Impairment

Descriptor

 

 

 

  • Bilateral moderate/severe or severe/profound permanent hearing loss
  • May have additional language/learning difficulties associated with hearing loss
  • Will have hearing aids and radio aid or cochlear implant
  • Profound difficulty accessing spoken language and therefore the curriculum
  • Speech clarity will be profoundly affected
  • Severe difficulties with attention, concentration, confidence and class participation
  • Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

 

School will provide

LA will provide

Assessment and Planning

 

 

 

 

Assessment:

  • Must be part of school and class assessments
  • Must have modification to the presentation of assessments

Planning:

Curriculum plan must closely track levels of achievement and all IEP targets are individualised, short term and specific incorporating advice from the TOD

  • Must have use of speech audiometry and other specialist tools to assess access to spoken language in class
  • Must have systematic application of assessment tools for deaf children
  • Must have involvement of education and non-education professionals as appropriate – SALT (up to 6 hours per annum 0 to 5 years)

 

Grouping for Teaching

 

 

 

  • Mainstream class with flexible grouping arrangements
  • Must have ongoing opportunities for 1:1 support focused on specific IEP targets
  • Must have frequent opportunities for small group work based on identified need
  • Must have particular attention to seating, lighting and acoustics
  • Advice from a TOD on curriculum and teaching methods

Human Resources/

Staffing

 

 

 

  • Must have main provision by class/subject teacher with support from ToD
  • Must have additional adults with appropriate training under the direction of the teacher and ToD to:
    • reinforce lesson content
    • deliver modified curriculum tasks
    • support language development
  • Should  have specialist support staff with appropriate communication skills
  • Should  have specialist support staff with appropriate communication skills

 

For a child identified with a hearing loss when they are in a school or setting teacher of the deaf completes a piece of work on referral as detailed in Range 3 above

 

  • Monitoring visits to speak to pupil/SENCO
  • Must assess for, issue and monitor radio aid – up to 6 hours educational audiologist/specialist audiology practitioner support
  • INSET to whole staff re hearing loss, use of radio aid etc
  • Must have ToD input into curriculum planning
  • Must have up to 114 hours per year for support to school and associated casework from a TOD and/or Specialist Practitioner for school and family
  • Advice from education and non-educational professionals inc. SALT as appropriate
  • Should have access to deaf adults and peers – up to 3 hours deaf instructor per annum if appropriate

Curriculum & Teaching Methods

 

 

 

  • Must have differentiation by presentation and/or outcome personalised to pupils identified needs
  • Must have opportunities for explanation, clarification and reinforcement of lesson content and language
  • Advice from a TOD on curriculum and teaching methods

Resources

 

 

  • Access to a quiet room for small group and 1:1 sessions

Must have:

  • Electro-acoustic assessment of auditory equipment
  • Provision of personal FM systems and soundfield systems
  • Specific deaf-related training for staff

 

 

Range 5

 

These pupils will access the provision in an Additionally Resourced Centre

Hearing Impairment

Descriptor

 

 

 

  • Bilateral moderate/severe/profound permanent hearing loss
  • Additional language/learning difficulties associated with hearing loss
  • BSL/SSE will be needed for effective communication
  • Will have hearing aids/cochlear implants and a radio aid
  • Profound difficulty accessing spoken language and therefore the curriculum without specialist intervention
  • Speech clarity will be profoundly affected
  • Will have significant difficulties with attention, concentration, confidence and class participation
  • Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder
  • Profound language delay and communication difficulties which prevent the development of appropriate social and emotional health.

 

School will provide

LA will provide

Assessment and Planning

 

 

 

 

Assessment:

  • Must be part of school and class assessments
  • Must have modification to the presentation of assessments

Planning:

  • Curriculum plan must closely track levels of achievement and all IEP targets are individualised, short term and specific
  • Speech audiometry and other specialist tools must be used to assess access to spoken language
  • Must have systematic application of speech language and communication assessment tools for deaf children
  • Must have assessment by education and non-education professionals as appropriate

 

Grouping for Teaching

 

 

 

  • Must have mainstream class with flexible grouping arrangements
  • Must have ongoing opportunities for 1:1 support focused on specific IEP targets
  • Must have frequent opportunities for small group work based on identified need
  • Must have particular attention to seating, lighting and acoustics
  • Support and advice from a teacher of the deaf

 

Human Resources/

Staffing

 

 

 

  • Main provision by class/subject teacher with support from ToD
  • Must have ongoing assessment of needs using specialist and NC guidance
  • Must have advice from non-educational professionals inc. SALT as appropriate – up to 1 hour per week
  • Must have timetabled teaching support directly from a TOD
  • Must have on going assessment from an educational audiologist – up to 12 hours per annum
  • Must have additional adults with appropriate training under the direction of the teacher and ToD to:
    • reinforce lesson content
    • deliver modified curriculum tasks
    • support language development
  • Access to deaf adults and peers
  • Specialist support staff with appropriate BSL/communication skills

Curriculum & Teaching Methods

 

 

 

  • Must have opportunities for explanation, clarification and reinforcement of lesson content and language
  • Must have differentiation by presentation and/or outcome personalised to pupils identified needs (school planning)
  • Must have differentiation by presentation and/or outcome personalised to pupils identified needs (TOD planning)

 

Resources

 

 

  • Must have access to a quiet room for small group and 1:1 sessions

Must have:

  • Electro-acoustic assessment of auditory equipment
  • Provision of personal FM systems and soundfield systems
  • Specific deaf-related training for staff

 

Range 6

 

These pupils will access the provision in an Additionally Resourced Centre

Hearing Impairment

Descriptor

 

 

 

  • Primary need is hearing loss and is bilateral moderate/severe/profound permanent
  • Additional difficulties and learning needs not associated with hearing loss.
  • Profound language/learning difficulties associated with hearing loss
  • May have BSL/SSE or augmentative communication needed for effective communication
  • Will have hearing aids/cochlear implants and a radio aid
  • Profound difficulty accessing spoken language and therefore the curriculum
  • Speech clarity will be affected
  • Difficulty with attention, concentration, confidence and class participation
  • Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder
  • Profound language delay and communication difficulties which prevent the development of appropriate social and emotional health

 

School will provide

LA will provide

Assessment and Planning

 

 

 

 

Assessment:

  • Must be part of school and class assessments
  • Must have modification to the presentation of assessments

Planning:

  • Curriculum plan must closely track levels of achievement and all IEP targets are individualised, short term and specific
  • Speech audiometry and other specialist tools must be used to assess access to spoken language
  • Must have systematic application of speech language and communication assessment tools for deaf children
  • Must have assessment by education and non-education professionals as appropriate

 

Grouping for Teaching

 

 

 

  • Must have mainstream class with flexible grouping arrangements
  • Must have ongoing opportunities for 1:1 support focused on specific IEP targets
  • Must have frequent opportunities for small group work based on identified need
  • Must have particular attention to seating, lighting and acoustics
  • Support and advice from a teacher of the deaf

 

Human Resources/

Staffing

 

 

 

  • Main provision by class/subject teacher with support from ToD
  • Must have ongoing assessment of needs using specialist and NC guidance
  • Must have timetabled teaching support directly from a TOD
  • Must have on going assessment from an educational audiologist – up to 12 hours
  • Must have additional adults with appropriate training under the direction of the teacher and ToD to:
    • reinforce lesson content
    • deliver modified curriculum tasks
    • support language development
    • Access to deaf adults and peers
    • 1:1 support from Specialist support staff with appropriate BSL/communication skills and skills in supporting additional needs
    • Must have advice from non-educational professionals inc. SALT as appropriate – up to 1 hour per week

Curriculum & Teaching Methods

 

 

 

  • Must have opportunities for explanation, clarification and reinforcement of lesson content and language
  • Must have differentiation by presentation and/or outcome personalised to pupils identified needs (school planning)
  • Must have differentiation by presentation and/or outcome personalised to pupils identified needs (TOD planning)

 

 

Resources

 

 

  • Must have access to a quiet room for small group and 1:1 sessions

Must have:

  • Electro-acoustic assessment of auditory equipment
  • Provision of personal FM systems and soundfield systems
  • Specific deaf-related training for staff